Bismuth (periodic chart)

Tankhouse electrolyte flows through the Bismuth Antimony Removal System (BARS) for removal of bismuth and antimony. The system uses Recoflo® technology and selective ion exchange resin for the removal. The resin is regenerated with a small amount of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and a catalyzed reducing agent. Recognizing that chloride can be a contaminant for the copper electrolyte, the system is equipped with a chloride monitoring device. Upon regeneration of the resin, the bismuth/antimony chloride stream is treated to precipitate salts of bismuth and antimony.